Some Basics of Goat Farming in India:
The following content details about basics of goat farming for beginners.
Goat is commonly known as ‘Poor man’s cow’ in India and is a very important occupation in dry land farming system. Suitable for small and marginal and landless labourers. It needs less grazing lands and initial investment is low.Risk of goat farming is less compared to other livestocks species. It is a economically viable sector to the rural people. They are resistant to diseases. In a short period we can get more revenue.
Goat Breeds in India:
Sirohi, Jamnapari, Surti, Tellicherry, Beetal, Malabari, Barbari , Black Bengal, Osmanabadi and Boer. These are the popular breeds in india.
For a profitable goat farming there should be 3 kidding for 2 years.
Goats with faster growth rate and larger size should be used for breeding.
- Does of one year of age should be used for breeding
- Does should bred after 3 months of kidding then only there will be 3 kidding for 2 years.
Goat Shed/Housing Construction:
It can be raised either intensive or semi intensive methods. In intensive method goats can be raised in sheds or raised platforms with deep bedding materials. No grazing for goats in this method. In semi intensive method they can be grown in ordinary sheds with light litter materials. They can go for the grazing lands also. A small shed with good cross ventilation is enough to keep a small herd. Litter height should be around 6cms. Litter material may be paddy straw,husk, groundnut shell. It should be changed every 6 months interval. Periodically we have to turn the bedding materials for avoiding bad odor. Care should be need for reducing parasitical infections. Each goat requires around 15 sq.ft area. If we use raised platform system means, we can reduce infection level. Around the shed should be wooden plates or wire meshed.
Goat Feeding/Grazing habits:
Goats consumes wide varieties of feeds and vegetation than either sheep or cattle. Goats are fond of leguminous fodders. They do not take fodders like sorghum and maize silage or straw. They like to eat hay prepared from forest grasses, if cut in early stages, but very much fond with hay prepared from leguminous crops.They also need grains like wheat, maize corns and some pulses. Apart from they need high mineral compositions. So we can prepare the mineral mixture in the following propositions.
Composition of Mineral Mixture Added at a 2% for Goats
|a.||Sterilized bone meal||35 Parts|
|b.||Finely ground high grade limestone||45 Parts|
|c.||Iodized salt||20 Parts|
|d.||Copper sulphate||22 grams/ton mineral mixture|
|e.||Zinc Oxide||11 grams/ton|
|f||Ferrous Carbonate||11 grams/ton|
Feeding protein rich green fodder such as acacia, leucerne and cassava and are important sources of dietary nitrogen. Farmers can cultivate agathi, subabul (subabool) and glaricidia trees along the border of the farm and used as green fodder. Oil cakes is the good supplement for goats. One acre of fodder is enough to feed 35 goats.
Seasonal fodder : Fodder sorghum, Maize, Cumbu
Perennial fodder : Co 1, Napier Hybrid, Guinea grass, Para grass, Kolukattai grass
Fodder legumes : Stylo, hedge Lucerne, Fodder ground nut
Tree fodders: Subabul(Subabool), Agathi etc
De-worming and vaccinations:
They need to be vaccinated against foot and mouth disease, rinder pest and tetanus regularly. The animals need to be dewormed at least twice a year to keep in good health. Before breeding the goat should be dewormed. Kids should be dewormed every month interval.
Returns on Goat Farming:
It is a economical and viable enterprise for farmers. Capital Investment of purchase of Goats is very low. For a price of 1 cross-bred Cow, one can purchase 10 quality goats. Goats & their kids can be sold and encashed anytime. Goat has shorter Gestation period(150 days). Their population in the country is continuously increasing, though 60% of the goats are slaughtered every year. Products available from Goats are mutton, milk, manure, skin and fine hair.
Total life of Goats = 15 years. Productive — 7 years. Pregnancy Period =150 days. Manure available from 1 adult goat in 24 hours is 1 kg
Indian meat is preferred in the world. The rich goat manure is ideal for fertilizing fishponds and all other crops. It is also a good base material for vermi-composting.
Loans for Goat Farming:
NABARD (National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development) is arranging loans for goat growers in a large scale. The loans will be repaid in suitable half yearly/annual installments usually within a period of about 5-6 years with a grace period of one year. The minimum down payment collected from small farmers are only 5% of the total investment. Marginal and large farmers 10, 15% respectively.
If you follow some basics of goat farming, it would be beneficial for returns on your investment.
For complete agriculture information in India : Read Here.