Foot and mouth disease in Sheep and Goats:(FMD): Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-footed animals including sheep, goat. This disease is endemic in India and producing serious economic losses to the country due to the ban on export of livestock products to other countries and reduced productivity of diseased animals.
Symptoms of FMD?
- High fever
- Decreased milk production
- The appearance of vesicles on the foot, mouth, and on udder
- lameness due to the presence of vesicles in the foot
- Excessive frothy salivation due to the presence of vesicles in the mouth
How this disease spread?
- The virus is excreted in the secretions and excretions of the affected animals including saliva, milk and vesicular fluid
- The virus spread from one place to another by air especially when the humidity of the air is high the virus easily spread from one place to another.
- The disease also spread from affected animals to healthy animals by contaminated feed, water, and other farm appliances and also through the movement of animals such as dogs, birds and farm workers
- Infected sheep and goat are excreting higher amount of infective virus and they play an important role in the spread of this disease
- Crossbred sheep and goat are highly susceptible than the indigenous sheep or goat
- The disease also spread by transportation of affected animals from one place to another.
What are the after-effects?
Diseased animals are more susceptible to mastitis, failure of conception, reduced heat tolerance and decreased milk production.
Read: Exotic Sheep Breeds.
How to control the spread of FMD?
- The healthy susceptible animals should not be transported to the endemic areas
- Animals should not be purchased from disease-affected areas
- Newly purchased animals should be quarantined for 21 days from the other animals in the farm
Treatment of FMD:-
- Mouth and foot of the diseased animals washed with 1 % potassium permanganate solution. Antiseptic lotion can be applied to the vesicles in the foot. Boric acid glycerine paste can be applied to the vesicles in the mouth.
- Diseased animals should be fed with palliative diet and they should be isolated from the healthy animals.
- The healthy susceptible animals should not be transported to the endemic areas.
- Animals should not be purchased from disease-affected areas.
- Newly purchased animals should be quarantined for 30 days from the other animals on the farm.
Read: Cow Breeding.