Goat Diseases & Vaccination Schedule:-
Goat-pox is not of uncommon occurrence, but it is less severe than the sheep-pox. The nature of the disease is similar to that of pox in sheep. The incubation period varies from 5 to 10 days. The disease tends to attack male kids and ewes in milk. Initially there may be slight pyrexia. The lesions are not so side spread as in sheep-pox, being confined to the hairless regions of the body such as axilla, things, nose and mouth. In the female the udder may also be involved. The lesions are typically of pox but usually are much smaller than those of the sheep-pox. The goat-pox virus is antigenically distinct from the sheep pox virus, although it is transmissible experimentally to both goats and sheep. The goat-pox in sheep is more severe than the sheep-pox. The goat-pox virus is anitgenically distinct from the sheep pox virus, although it is transmissible experimentally the sheep-pox. The lesions occur on the lips and oral mucosa, the teats and udder. The goat-pox virus affords solid protection in sheep against both goat-and sheep-pox, but the sheep-pox virus does not protect goats against the goat pox.
(Source: Dr.Acharya, Handbook of Animal Husbandry)
- Be on the alert for signs of illness such as reduced feed intake, fever, abnormal discharge or unusual behavior.
- Consult the nearest veterinary aid centre for help if illness is suspected.
- Protect the animals against common diseases.
- In case of outbreak of contagious diseases, immediately segregate the sick animals from healthy one and take necessary disease control measures.
- De-worm the animals regularly.
- Examine the faeces of adult animals to detect eggs of internal parasites and treat the animals with suitable drugs.
- Provide clean and uncontaminated feed and water for minimizing the health disorders.
- Strictly follow the recommended vaccine schedule.
Other Preventive Measures
- Annual vaccine with Bar-Vac CD/T. For immunizing against tetanus and overeating disease. We give 2 cc per animal. The first time an animal is given the vaccine it must have a booster shot 30 days later. We vaccine newborn kids at 20+ days old and booster shot 30 days later.
- Annual vaccine with Triangle® 9 + Type II BVD – For immunizing against 9 different types of respiratory problems. We give 2 cc per animal under the skin. There must be a booster shot for the first time given. Kids must be at least 2 months old.
- Drench newborn kids with Bar-Guard-99. Used for the prevention of colibacillosis caused by K99 strains of Escherichia coli. Our vet told us this can also help prevent Floppy Kid Syndrome. We drench newborn kids immediately after they have their first mother’s milk. We give them 2 ccs.
- Preventive De-worming for internal parasites. We de-worm as little as possible to try and have our animals build up resistance to internal parasites. We treat our does about 2 weeks before kidding.
- Regular barn cleaning. We clean our barns about every 2 weeks to give our animals as clean of environment as possible.
- Treat animals with Pro-Bios when they are given antibiotics to ensure the rumen continues to work properly.
- Lab testing of any Abscess. Any abscess we find on an animal is reviewed by our vet and the abscess content is tested to see if it is CL. Any animal that tests for CL will be eliminated from our farm but not sold to our customers. We do not manage CL, we eliminate it.
Preventive Measures we do not take
- Vaccinate for Sore Mouth. We do not vaccinate for Sore Mouth. If you have not had Sore Mouth on your farm, vaccinating for it brings live bacteria on your site and will require annual vaccinations to protect animals. If you have had Sore Mouth on your farm, any animal getting it will become immune to it when they do get it. It only lasts for around 3 weeks. We will monitor for any serious infections.
- Hoof Trimming. We only trim hooves on exception. We want to have animals that do not require regular trimming. If an animal does have hooves that get bad and may cause problems, we will trim them as required. We prefer that the hooves break off or chip during normal movement.
Problems in pregnancy
We breed our does individually and therefore know approximately when they are scheduled to kid. This is important for us because it allows us to watch for specific problems during their pregnancy. There are two main type of problems related to pregnancy. They are Pregnancy Toxemia and Abortions. Pregnancy Toxemia is a problem that we have seen many times. We have never had a problem that we know of where the does aborted however we have talked to friend that have had abortion problems.
This is a problem in the late pregnancy, normally the last month and especially last two weeks. It is normally related to a doe with multiple kids. During the last two months, the kids are adding 70% of their birthing weight. During the final weeks, there is additional nutritional requirements for the kids as continue to increase in size and there is less and less room for the rumen to hold the same amount of food. The goats body will give the kids nutritional needs the priority at the expense to the mother. She may not be able to consume enough nutrition and the body will start converting the mothers carbohydrates stored in her tissues. This leads to the release of keton bodies into her blood – a sign that her metabolism is faulty.
The symptoms will be a loss of appetite, not wanting to get up or move around, sweet-smelling breath, limping and swelling of feet or walking very tenderly. Ketosis strips can be used to identify if the doe is ketotic Give doe propylene glycol twice a day. We give 60cc drench in am and pm. We also create a mixture of sodium bicarbonate with water and give 30cc drench am and pm. Help get the doe up and moving around during the day and offering her high energy food.
Proper nutrition is essential for having healthy kids. Simultaneous deficiencies of energy and protein can cause abortion of embryos early in the pregnancy. Deficiencies of some trace minerals such as copper and iodine can be the cause of abortions. Also, excessive selenium for an extended period can cause abortions.
An abortion by one or more of the goats in your herd may indicate an infectious disease that needs an overall management response. It is likely that your vet will be required to identify the type of infection causing the problem.
- Chlamydiosis – caused by an intracellular organism. Abortion typically occurs in the last 2 months of pregnancy and especially the last 2 weeks. The rest of the pregnant herd must be considered. Non bred does can catch the infection but it will result in their becoming immune. You should consider injecting pregnant does with tetracyclines by the intramuscular rout to try and prevent them from aborting.
- Toxoplasmosis – this is associated with a coccidium of cats. Cats become infected by consuming uncooked meat scraps, placentas, and small rodents. Goats become infected by eating grass, hay or garin contaminated by cat feces.It can result in abortion, stillbirths and weak kids. However, reducing exposure to cat may help but in may lead to an increase in rats that carry other diseases.
- Q Fever – a bacterial disease capable of being transmitted from animals to people caused by Coxiella burnetii, a rickettsial organism. C. burnetii may be found in sheep, cattle, goats, cats, dogs, some wild animals (including many wild rodents), birds, and ticks. Animals shed the organism in their urine, feces, milk, and especially in their birth products. Abortion or stillbirths occur in late pregnancy, but only when the placenta has been severely damaged. Treatment is with tetracycline. Placentas and aborted fetuses shoud be destroyed by burning.
- Brucellosis – brucella organisms infect a goats placenta and udder, causing abortion and mastitis When goats in an endemic herd are in a stressful environment and management is not adequate to control nutritional and parasitic diseases, then abortion will occur in the last 2 months of pregnancy.
- Listeriosis – caused by listeria monocytogenes a ubiquitous organism that may be found in soil, water, plant litter and digestive tract of ruminants. Abortions occur in the last 2 months. Treatment is usage of tetracyclines.