Tetanus in Sheep and Goats

Tetanus in sheep and goats:

  • About this disease:
    • Tetanus in sheep and goats is a non-contagious, infectious disease of mammals caused by bacterial toxin characterized by spasmodic
      contraction of skeletal muscles.
    • Sheep and goat are more susceptible animals with tetanus disease.

    What Causes:

    • The disease is caused by bacteria known as Clostridium tetani which is remain in the intestine of the herbivorous animals as normal habitat.
    • The organism can be grown under strict anaerobic condition.
    • The spores are very much resistant and can persist in the soil even for years. The spores can be destroyed by boiling
      at 115˙C for 30 to 60 minutes.
    • Vegetative forms can be destroyed by heat and disinfectants but spores are highly resistant to many physical,
      chemical agents and common disinfectants.
    • Cl. Tetani spores require anaerobic conditions at the wound site for germination and liberate potent toxins.
    • Spores may continue to persist as dormant manner in tissues for many months until favourable conditions develop
      for their germination.
    • The organisms are very much resistant and therefore remain in the environment especially in the street dust,
      garden soil and animal manured soil in large number for a considerable period.
    • Organisms may continue to live in the faeces for a long period of time and thus remain as a potential source of
      infection to man and animals.
    • The organisms gain entrance through deep punctured wound contaminated with bacterial spores. Trauma and damage of the tissues caused by injection, dog bites, vaccination or chemical agents such as calcium salt, lactic acid
      or by infection with other bacteria may help in the initiation of the disease process.
    • Organisms may gain access during parturition and manual handling of the genitalia with contaminants, retention
      of placenta and prolapse, castration by open method, shearing, docking and vaccination may augment the transmission if, not attended properly.
    • Neo-natal animals may get the infection through contaminated umbilicus.
    • Deep wound in the feet during grazing, ploughing or transport, wound of oral mucosa, dental caries, wound due to surgical interference, wounds by a penetrating object e.g. nail etc. and contaminated by dirt may influence the
      disease transmission.

    Whar aroms?e the  sympt:

    • Stiff gait and apathy to feed is the initial sign of the disease.
    • The initial signs consist of restricted movement, muscular stiffness and difficulty in walk, lack of coordination,
      unusual walking.
    • Stiffness of muscles of the limbs with extended back and neck arched, reporting sudden death.
    • Stiff gait spasm of mouth muscles results mouth become held tight, difficult to separate the jaws, ”lock-jaw”
    •  Prolapse of the third eye lid, head drawn on one side or back ward, pump handle position of the tail, erection of the
      ears, immobility of the ears and characteristic “saw horse stance” are the features.
    • The rigidity of the facial muscles gives an anxious expression.
    • There is restriction of mastication and dribbling of saliva from the mouth.
    • Suppression of rumination and bloat are the important attributes.
    • Animal remains hypersensitive and over reaction to sudden noise or physical contact and reflex irritability is noted from the start of symptom.
    • Death usually occurs in 3-4 days.

    Control and preventive measures:

    • Proper vaccination at day old should be used. Giving two doses of vaccine at least four weeks apart. An annual
      booster dose is recommended.
    • Tetanus toxoid vaccines at the times of exposure of body tissues to environment prevent the disease occurrence.
    • Providing passive immunity to the lambs by giving ewes a booster vaccination, a few weeks before lambing commences.
    • Care of any local wound and make sure the wound is not contaminated by dirt.
    • Cleanliness and proper hygienic measures are to be adopted at the time of parturition and following parturition.
    • The animal should not be allowed to graze near barbed wire fencing.
    • Yards should be watered to decrease dust.
    • Open method of castration should be discouraged in the village level.
    • Proper care should be taken to handle the retention of placenta and prolapsed cases.
    • Sterile surgical instruments are to be used at the time of operation.
    • Wound should be drained with deep incision. The animal should be kept away from metallic and sharp objects.
    • Hygiene is essential while undertaking any husbandry or surgical procedure.
    • All out precautions should be taken during castration.

Coureasy By Tamil Nadu Agricultural University

tetanus in goats
tetanus in goats
titanus in sheep
titanus in sheep

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